You need to cite your sources in order to identify other people’s ideas and information used within your assignments. If you take or copy someone else’s words or ideas and present them as if they were your own, you are plagiarizing.
APA Style Blog is written by experts from the American Psychological Association. This is the most comprehensive guide to the new 7th edition of APA.
Topics covered there include traditional citations such as:
As well as more particular sources like:
The Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue also produces a popular APA Formatting and Style Guide.
Content covered here includes:
OWL at Purdue has paired with Chegg to provide access to Citation Machine within their tutorials. While citation builders are convenient, they are not always accurate. This guide can help you make decisions about citation generators that you find online: using citation generators responsibly. Always check your references, and if you have any questions about APA, please Ask a Librarian.
In-text citations are very important in your assignments. They tell your instructor where the information came from and give it context within your own writing.
References provide the information necessary for readers to identify and retrieve each work that you have cited in-text. Each citation should have four basic elements:
While the specifics of each citation varies by source type, the basic elements remain mostly the same. To see a list of reference examples based on source type, please visit this APA Style Blog page:
Sampson, J. P., & Makela, J. P. (2014). Ethical issues associated with information and communication technology in counseling and guidance. International Journal for Educational and Vocational Guidance, 14(1), 135-148. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10775-013-9258-7
(Sampson & Makela, 2014)
Collins, C. J., Hanges, P. J., & Locked, E. A. (2004). The relationship of achievement motivation to entrepreneurial behavior: A meta-analysis. Human Performance, 17(1), 95-117.
(Collins et al., 2004)
For more information about when and how to use DOIs, please see:
United Nations Statistics Division (n.d.). UNdata: A world of information. http://data.un.org
(United Nations Statistics Division, n.d.)
Beck, C. A. J., & Sales, B. D. (2001). Family mediation: Facts, myths, and future prospects. American Psychological Association.
(Beck & Sales, 2001)
McLyman, L. A. (2005). Wise leadership. Michigan State University Press.
Oreg, S. & Michel, A., & Todnem, R. (Eds.). (2013). The psychology of organizational change: Viewing change from the employee’s perspective. Cambridge University Press. https://amzn.to/2PHRDtU
(Oreg et al., 2013)
Free citation tools to help you access your saved sources and references from anywhere online. Citation builders generate APA-formatted references from user-submitted information such as author, date, and publication title. While citation builders are convenient, they are not always accurate. Always check your references and citations for APA errors--this includes when using citation generators within library databases.
It is vital for students and scholars to consider their practices of citing sources, as these practices are part of how we attribute knowledge and ideas. These practices reflect whose voices are heard and prioritized, what counts as "knowledge," and who can be creators and holders of knowledge. There is growing movement around citational justice or citation politics, to #CiteIndigenousAuthors, a parallel to #CiteBlackWomen. For a list of readings and resources, please see this citation politics guide for First Nations and Indigenous Studies from the University of British Columbia.
"The American Psychological Association emphasizes the need to talk about all people with inclusivity and respect. Writers using APA Style must strive to use language that is free of bias and to avoid perpetuating prejudicial beliefs or demeaning attitudes in their writing. Just as you have learned to check what you write for spelling, grammar, and wordiness, practice reading your work for bias" (APA Style Blog, 2019).
Use this page on the APA Style Blog to learn more: https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/bias-free-language
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