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APA & Writing

A guide to APA style and writing. 7th Edition

Use APA

Get Help with APA Style

You need to cite your sources in order to identify other people’s ideas and information used within your assignments. If you take or copy someone else’s words or ideas and present them as if they were your own, you are plagiarizing. 

Learn more: 

APA Style Blog

APA Style Blog is written by experts from the American Psychological Association. This is the most comprehensive guide to the new 7th edition of APA.

Topics covered there include traditional citations such as: 

  • Citing a book 
  • Citing an article 
  • Citing a source with missing information (no date, no author, etc.) 
  • Citing a source you found in another source (secondary or indirect citations) 

As well as topics that are new to APA like: 

  • Citing something from a website 
  • Citing YouTube videos 

Purdue OWL

The Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue also produces a popular APA Formatting and Style Guide.

Content covered here includes:

  • Videos on APA topics 
  • Creating a Reference list 

OWL at Purdue has paired with Chegg to provide access to Citation Machine within their tutorials. While citation builders are convenient, they are not always accurate. This guide can help you make decisions about citation generators that you find online: using citation generators responsibly. Always check your references, and if you have any questions about APA, please Ask a Librarian. 

How to Format In-Text Citations and the Reference List

How to cite sources in the body of your assignments (in-text citations)

In-text citations are very important in your assignments. They tell your instructor where the information came from and give it context within your own writing.

How to cite sources at the end of your assignment (reference list)

References provide the information necessary for readers to identify and retrieve each work that you have cited in-text. Each citation should have four basic elements:

A. Author

B. Date

C. Title

D. Source

visual representation of the elements of a citation

 

Examples

While the specifics of each citation varies by source type, the basic elements remain mostly the same. To see a list of reference examples based on source type, please visit this APA Style Blog page:

Common APA Reference Examples

 

Articles with or without DOI (read about DOI from APA)  

With DOI:

Reference list: 

Sampson, J. P., & Makela, J. P. (2014). Ethical issues associated with information and communication technology in counseling and guidance. International Journal for Educational and Vocational Guidance, 14(1), 135-148. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10775-013-9258-7 

In text: 
(Sampson & Makela, 2014) 

Without DOI:

Reference list: 

Collins, C. J., Hanges, P. J., & Locked, E. A. (2004). The relationship of achievement motivation to entrepreneurial behavior: A meta-analysis. Human Performance, 17(1), 95-117. 

In text: 
(Collins et al., 2004) 

For more information about when and how to use DOIs, please see:

Websites 

Reference list: 

United Nations Statistics Division (n.d.). UNdata: A world of information. http://data.un.org 

In text: 
(United Nations Statistics Division, n.d.) 

Books 

Reference list: 

Beck, C. A. J., & Sales, B. D. (2001). Family mediation: Facts, myths, and future prospects. American Psychological Association. 

In text: 
(Beck & Sales, 2001) 

E-book from Online Database 

Reference list: 

McLyman, L. A. (2005). Wise leadership. Michigan State University Press. 

In text: 
(McLyman, 2005) 

E-book not from Online Database (e.g., Kindle) 

Reference list: 

Oreg, S. & Michel, A., & Todnem, R. (Eds.). (2013). The psychology of organizational change: Viewing change from the employee’s perspective. Cambridge University Press. https://amzn.to/2PHRDtU 

In text: 
(Oreg et al., 2013) 

Reports from Online Business Databases

Citation Generators

Important Note about Citation Generators

Free citation tools to help you access your saved sources and references from anywhere online. Citation builders generate APA-formatted references from user-submitted information such as author, date, and publication title. While citation builders are convenient, they are not always accurate. Always check your references and citations for APA errors--this includes when using citation generators within library databases.

APA Language

Bias-free Language

"The American Psychological Association emphasizes the need to talk about all people with inclusivity and respect. Writers using APA Style must strive to use language that is free of bias and to avoid perpetuating prejudicial beliefs or demeaning attitudes in their writing. Just as you have learned to check what you write for spelling, grammar, and wordiness, practice reading your work for bias" (APA Style Blog, 2019).

Use this page on the APA Style Blog to learn more: https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/bias-free-language